How to enable IP Forwarding in Debian

IP routing/forwarding is disabled per default in Debian.
For enabling on the fly, you only have to write “1″ in /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward or to set the kernel parameter net.ipv4.ip_forward to “1″.

Method #1:
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
Method #2:
sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

The actual setting can be checked as following:

debian:~# sysctl net.ipv4.ip_forward
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
debian:~# cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

If you want permanent setting, the most [...]

Interface range macro

I often use the feature interface-range on Cisco switches running IOS.
Not so long ago, i discovered the command interface-range macro, from which i never heard before.
With this macro, you can visit group several interfaces together and address them by a significant name.
Short example:

define interface-range UPLINKS FastEthernet0/1, FastEthernet0/24
define interface-range USERPORTS FastEthernet0/2 - 23


switch#conf t
switch(config)#interface range macro [...]

Bringing up an interface without an IP address

To create a network interface without an IP address at all use the manual method and use pre-up and post-down commands to bring the interface up and down.
This can be necessary, when you like to bridge a VMWare VM to this interface or when it’s connected to a mirror port on the switch for sniffing [...]

apt - Fix GPG error

When doing an apt-get update to refresh index files from their sources, the indexes of available packages are fetched from the location(s) specified in /etc/apt/sources.list
Sometimes you will see an error like that:

debian:~# apt-get update
Get:1 etch-backports Release.gpg [189B]
Hit etch-backports Release    
(output shortened)
Hit etch/updates/contrib Packages
Hit etch/updates/main Sources
Hit etch/updates/contrib Sources
Fetched 180kB in 2s (75.2kB/s)
Reading [...]